In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Muslims' Festivals

 The article was collected by Ummu Mariam.

 

 

 

Verily, all praises and thanks are due to Allah, we praise Him, seek His help and His forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils of our souls and evils of our deeds. One whom Allah guides none can lead him astray, and one whom He misguides, none can guide him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad (SAAS) is His servant and His messenger.

"O you who believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He has ordered and by abstaining from all that He has forbidden) as He should be feared. (Obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Him always), and die not except in a state of Islam [as Muslims (with complete submission to Allah)]." (Al-Qur‘aan 3:102 - interpretation of the meaning)

"O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you." (Al-Qur‘aan 4:1 - interpretation of the meaning)

"O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (SAAS) he has indeed achieved a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-fire and made to enter Paradise)." (Al-Qur‘aan 33:70-71 - interpretation of the meaning)

Ammaa ba'd (as for what follows), the best of speech is the speech of Allah that is the Book of Allah. The best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (SAAS). Of all matters, the worst are innovations; and everything new is an innovation, and every innovation is a deviation, and every deviation leads to Hell-fire.


Introduction

"…'Eid is an Arabic word referring to something habitual that returns and is repeated. A'yaad (plural of 'eid) or festivals are symbols to be found in every nation, including those that are based on revealed scriptures and those that are idolatrous, as well as others, because celebrating festivals is something that is an instinctive part of human nature. All people like to have special occasions to celebrate, where they can come together and express their joy and happiness.

The festivals of the kaafir nations may be connected to worldly matters, such as the beginning of the year, the start of an agricultural season, the changing of the weather, the establishment of a state, the accession of a ruler, and so on. They may also be connected to religious occasions, like many of the festivals belonging exclusively to the Jews and Christians (such as Christmas and Thanksgiving) ... These are celebrated in all European and North American countries nowadays, and in other countries where Christian influence is prevalent, even if the country is not originally Christian. Some so-called Muslims may also join in these holidays, out of ignorance or hypocrisy.

The Magians (Zoroastrians) also have their own festivals, such as Mahrajaan, Nawroz and so on. Al-Baateniyyah (sect of Shia) have their own festivals too, such as "'eid al-Ghadiir", when they claim that the Prophet (SAAS) gave the khilaafah to 'Ali (RAA)...

The Muslims are distinguished by their festivals. The Prophet's words: "Every nation has its festival, and this is your festival" indicate that these two a'yaad (festivals) are exclusively for the Muslims, and that it is not permissible for Muslims to imitate the kuffaar and mushrikeen in anything that is a distinctive part of their celebrations, whether it be food, dress, bonfires or acts of worship. Muslim children should not be allowed to play on those kaafir festivals, or to put up decorations, or to join in with the kuffaar on those occasions. All kaafir or innovated festivals are haraam, such as Independence Day celebrations, anniversaries of revolutions, holidays celebrating trees or accessions to the throne, birthdays, Labour Day, the Nile festival, shimm an-naseem (Egyptian spring holiday), teachers' day, and al-mawlid an-nabawii (Prophet's Birthday)." [Quoted from the article: "'Eid: Etiquette and rulings". (Taken from www.islam-qa.com)]

This article has been collected from different articles taken from the website Islam Q&A, to enlighten Muslims about the etiquettes of their festivals, especially 'eid al-Adhaa, which will be at hand shortly. However, before dealing with rituals of 'eid, we should know about the virtue of the days preceding it.

The first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah are among the great seasons of worship, and Allah has favoured them over all other days of the year. The following paragraph will give us insight into the deeds that will benefit us during this season.


Virtues of the Ten Days of Dhul-Hijjah

All praises and thanks are due to Allah Who has created Time and has made some times better than others, some months and days and nights better than others, when rewards are multiplied many times, as a mercy towards His servants. This encourages them to do more righteous deeds and makes them more eager to worship Him, so that the Muslim renews his efforts to gain a greater share of reward, prepare himself for death and supply himself in readiness for the Day of Judgement.

This season of worship brings many benefits, such as the opportunity to correct one's faults and make up for any shortcomings or anything that one might have missed. Every one of these special occasions involves some kind of worship through which the servants may draw closer to Allah, and some kind of blessing though which Allah bestows His favour and mercy upon whomsoever He will. The happy person is the one who makes the most of these special months, days and hours and draws nearer to his Lord during these times through acts of worship; he will most likely be touched by the blessing of Allah and will feel the joy of knowing that he is safe from the flames of Hell. (Ibn Rajab, al-Lataa‘if, p.8)

The Muslim must understand the value of his life, increase his worship of Allah and persist in doing good deeds until the moment of death. Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "And worship your Lord until there comes unto you the certainty." (Al-Qur‘aan 15:99) The mufassiroon (commentators) said: "'The certainty' means death."

Among the special seasons of worship are the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, which Allah has preferred over all the other days of the year. Ibn 'Abbaas (RAA) reported that the Prophet (SAAS) said: "There are no days in which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allah than these ten days." The people asked: "Not even jihad for the sake of Allah?" He said: "Not even jihad for the sake of Allah, except in the case of a man who went out to fight giving himself and his wealth up for the cause, and came back with nothing." (Reported by al-Bukhari, 2/457)

Ibn 'Abbaas (RAA) also reported that the Prophet (SAAS) said: "There is no deed more precious in the sight of Allah, nor greater in reward, than a good deed done during the ten days of Sacrifice." He was asked: "Not even jihad for the sake of Allah?" He said: "Not even jihad for the sake of Allah, except in the case of a man who went out to fight giving himself and his wealth up for the cause, and came back with nothing." (Reported by ad-Daarimee, 1/357; its isnaad is hasan as stated in al-Irwaa‘, 3/398.)

These texts and others indicate that these ten days are better than all the other days of the year, with no exceptions, not even the last ten days of Ramadan. But the last ten nights of Ramadan are better, because they include laylat al-qadr ("the Night of Decree"), which is better than a thousand months. Thus the various reports may be reconciled. (See Tafsiir ibn Kathiir, 5/412.)

You should know, my brother in Islam, that the virtue of these ten days is based on many things:

    Allah swears an oath by them, and swearing an oath by something is indicative of its importance and great benefit. Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "By the dawn; by the ten nights." (Al-Qur‘aan 89:1-2). Ibn 'Abbaas, ibn az-Zubayr, Mujaahid and others of the earlier and later generations said that this refers to the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. Ibn Kathiir said: "This is the correct opinion." (Tafsiir ibn Kathiir, 8/413)

    The Prophet (SAAS) testified that these are the best days of this world, as we have already quoted above from sahiih ahaadiith.

    The Prophet (SAAS) encouraged people to do righteous deeds because of the virtue of this season for people throughout the world, and also because of the virtue of the place - for the hujjaaj (pilgrims) to the Sacred House of Allah.

    The Prophet (SAAS) commanded us to recite a lot of tasbeeh ("subhaanallaah"), tahmeed ("al-hamdulillaah") and takbeer ("Allaahu akbar") during this time. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (RAA) reported that the Prophet (SAAS) said: "There are no days greater in the sight of Allah and in which righteous deeds are more beloved to Him than these ten days, so during this time recite a great deal of tahleel ("laa ilaaha illa Allah"), takbeer and tahmeed." (Reported by Ahmad, 7/224; Ahmad Shaakir stated that it is sahiih.)

    These ten days include yawm 'Arafah (the day of 'Arafah), on which Allah perfected His Religion. Fasting on this day will expiate for the sins of two years. These days also include yawm an-Nahar (the day of Sacrifice), the greatest day of the entire year and the greatest day of hajj, which combines acts of worship in a way unlike any other day.

    These ten days include the days of sacrifice and of hajj.


What must the Muslim avoid during these ten days if he wants to offer a sacrifice?

The Sunnah indicates that the one who wants to offer a sacrifice must stop cutting his hair and nails and removing anything from his skin, from the beginning of the ten days until after he has offered his sacrifice, because the Prophet (SAAS) said: "When you see the new moon of Dhul-Hijjah, if any one of you wants to offer a sacrifice, then he should stop cutting his hair and nails until he has offered his sacrifice." According to another report he (SAAS) said: "He should not remove (literally, touch) anything from his hair or skin." (Reported by Muslim with four asaaniid, 13/146.)

The Prophet's instruction here makes one thing obligatory and his prohibition makes another haraam, according to the soundest opinion, because these commands and prohibitions are unconditional and unavoidable. However, if a person does any of these things deliberately, he must seek Allah's forgiveness but is not required to offer (an extra) sacrifice in expiation; his sacrifice will be acceptable. Whoever needs to remove some hair, nails, etc. because it is harming him, such as having a broken nail or a wound in a site where there is hair, should do so, and there is nothing wrong with that. The state of ihraam (in which one is prohibited from doing certain things which are lawful at other times) is so important that it is permitted to cut one's hair if leaving it will cause harm. There is nothing wrong with men or women washing their heads during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, because the Prophet (SAAS) only forbade cutting the hair, not washing it.

The wisdom behind this prohibition of the one who wants to offer a sacrifice from cutting his hair etc., is so that he may resemble those in ihraam in some aspects of the rituals performed, and so that he may draw closer to Allah by offering the sacrifice. So he leaves his hair and nails alone until the time when he has offered his sacrifice, in the hope that Allah will save him in his entirety from the Fire. And Allah knows best.

If a person has cut his hair or nails during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah because he was not planning to offer a sacrifice, then he decides later, during the ten days, to offer a sacrifice, then he must refrain from cutting his hair and nails from the moment he makes this decision.

Some women may delegate their brothers or sons to make the sacrifice on their behalf, then cut their hair during these ten days. This is not correct, because the ruling applies to the one who is offering the sacrifice, whether or not he (or she) delegates someone else to carry out the actual deed. The prohibition does not apply to the person delegated, only to the person who is making the sacrifice, as is indicated in the hadiith. The person, who is sacrificing on behalf of someone else, for whatever reason, does not have to adhere to this prohibition.

This prohibition appears to apply only to the one who is offering the sacrifice, not to his wife and children, unless any of them is offering a sacrifice in his or her own right, because the Prophet (SAAS) used to sacrifice "on behalf of the family of Muhammad," but there are no reports that say he forbade them to cut their hair or nails at that time.

If a person was planning to offer a sacrifice, then he decides to go and perform hajj, he should not cut his hair or nails if he wants to enter ihraam, because the sunnah is only to cut hair and nails when necessary. But if he is performing tamattu' [whereby he performs 'umrah, comes out of ihraam and enters ihraam anew for hajj], he should trim his hair at the end of his 'umrah because this is part of the ritual.

The things that are described above as being prohibited for the person who is planning to offer a sacrifice are reported in the hadiith quoted above; the person is not forbidden to wear perfume, have marital relations, wear sewn garments, etc.

Concerning the types of worship to be performed during these ten days, one must understand that these days are a great blessing from Allah to His servants, which is appreciated properly by the actively righteous. It is the Muslim's duty to appreciate this blessing and make the most of the opportunity, by devoting these ten days to paying more attention to striving hard in worship. Among His blessings to His servants, Allah has given us many ways in which to do good and worship Him, so that the Muslim may be constantly active and consistent in his worship of his Lord.


Among the good deeds which the Muslim should strive to do during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah are:

    Fasting. It is sunnah to fast on the first nine days of Dhul-Hijjah, because the Prophet (SAAS) urged us to do good deeds during this time, and fasting is one of the best deeds. Allah has chosen fasting for Himself [because of its honouring it is mentioned in conjunction with Allah], as is stated in the hadiith qodsii: "Allah says: 'All the deeds of the son of Adam are for him, except for fasting, which is for Me and I am the One Who will reward him for it.'" (Reported by al-Bukhari, 1805)

The Prophet (SAAS) used to fast on the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah. Hunaydah ibn Khaalid reported from his wife that some of the wives of the Prophet (SAAS) said: "The Prophet (SAAS) used to fast on the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah, on the day of 'Aashuuraa‘, on three days of each month, the first Monday of the month and two Thursdays." (Reported by an-Nasaa‘ee, 4/205 and by Abu Dawud; classified by al-Albaani as sahiih in Sahiih Abi Dawud, 2/462.)

    Takbeer. It is sunnah to say takbeer ("Allaahu akbar"), tahmeed ("al-hamdulillaah"), tahleel ("laa ilaaha illa Allah") and tasbeeh ("subhaanallaah") during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, and to say it loudly in the mosque, home, street and every place where it is permitted to remember Allah and mention His name out loud, as an act of worship and as a proclamation of the greatness of Allah, may He be exalted. Men should recite these phrases out loud, and women should recite them quietly.

Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "That they may witness things that are of benefit to them (i.e. reward of hajj in the Hereafter, and also some worldly gain from trade), and mention the name of Allah on appointed days, over the beast of cattle that He has provided for them (for sacrifice)..." (Al-Qur‘aan 22:28)

The majority of scholars agree that the "appointed days" are the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, because of the words of ibn 'Abbaas (RAA): "The 'appointed days' are the first ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah)."

The takbeer may include the words "Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha illa Allah; wa Allaahu akbar wa lillaahilhamd (Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, there is no god but Allah; Allah is Most Great and all praises and thanks are due to Allah)," as well as other phrases.

Takbeer at this time is an aspect of the Sunnah that has been forgotten, especially during the early part of this period, so much so that one hardly ever hears takbeer, except from a few people. This takbeer should be pronounced loudly, in order to revive the sunnah and as a reminder to the negligent. There is sound evidence that ibn 'Umar and Abu Huraira (RAA) used to go out in the marketplace during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, reciting takbeer, and the people would recite takbeer when they heard them. The idea behind reminding the people to recite takbeer is that each one should recite it individually, not in unison, as there is no basis in sharee'ah for doing this.

Reviving aspects of the Sunnah that have been virtually forgotten is a deed that will bring an immense reward, as is indicated by the words of the Prophet (SAAS): "Whoever revives an aspect of my Sunnah that is forgotten after my death, he will have a reward equivalent to that of the people who follow him, without it detracting in the least from their reward." (Reported by at-Tirmidhi, 7/443; this is a hasan hadiith because of corroborating asaaniid.)

    Performing hajj and 'umrah. One of the best deeds that one can do during these ten days is to perform hajj to the Sacred House of Allah. The one whom Allah helps to go on hajj to His House and to perform all the rituals properly is - in shaa‘ Allah - included in the words of the Prophet (SAAS): "An accepted hajj brings no less a reward than Paradise."

    Doing more good deeds in general, because good deeds are beloved by Allah and will bring a great reward from Him. Whoever is not able to go to hajj should occupy himself at this blessed time by worshipping Allah, praying (salaah), reading Qur‘aan, remembering Allah, making supplication (du'aa‘), giving charity, honouring his parents, upholding the ties of kinship, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, and other good deeds and acts of worship.

    Sacrifice. One of the good deeds that will bring a person closer to Allah during these ten days is offering a sacrifice, by choosing a good, fat animal and to spend money on it for the sake of Allah.

    Sincere repentance. One of the most important things to do during these ten days is to repent sincerely to Allah and to give up all kinds of disobedience and sin. Repentance means coming back to Allah and forgoing all the deeds, open and secret, that He dislikes, out of regret for what has passed, giving them up immediately and being determined never to return to them, but to adhere firmly to the truth by doing what Allah loves.

If a Muslim commits a sin, he must hasten to repent at once, without delay, firstly because he does not know when he will die, and secondly because one evil deed leads to another.

Repentance at special times is very important because in most cases people's thoughts turn towards worship at these times, and they are keen to do good, which leads them to recognize their sins and feel regret for the past. Repentance is obligatory at all times, but when the Muslim combines sincere repentance with good deeds during the days of most virtue, this is a sign of success, in shaa‘ Allah. Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "But as for him who repented (from polytheism and sins), believed [in the Oneness of Allah, and in His Messenger Muhammad (SAAS)], and did righteous deeds (in the life of this world), then he will be among those who are successful." (Al-Qur‘aan 28:67)

The Muslim should make sure that he does not miss any of these important occasions, because time is passing quickly. Let him prepare himself by doing good deeds which will bring him reward when he is most in need of it, for no matter how much reward he earns, he will find it is less than he needs; the time of departure is at hand, the journey is frightening, delusions are widespread, and the road is long, but Allah is ever watchful, and to Him will we return and render account. As the Qur‘aan says (interpretation of the meaning): "So, whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it." (Al-Qur‘aan 99:7-8)

There is much to be gained, so make the most of the opportunity afforded by these invaluable and irreplaceable ten days. Hasten to do good works, before death strikes, before you can regret your negligence and failure to act, before you are asked to return to a place where no prayers will be answered, before death intervenes between you and the things you hope for, before you are trapped with your deeds in the grave.

O you whose hard heart is as dark as the night, is it not time that your heart was filled with light and became soft? Expose yourself to the gentle breeze of your Lord's mercy during these ten days, for Allah will cause this breeze to touch whomever He wills, and whoever is touched by it will be happy on the Day of Judgement. May Allah bless our Prophet Muhammad (SAAS) and all his Family and Companions. [Islam Q&A (www.islam-qa.com)]


Virtues of the day of 'Arafah

Question #7284:

What are the Virtues of the day of 'Arafah?

Answer:

All praises and thanks are due to Allah.


    It is the day on which the religion was perfected and Allah's Favour was completed.

In as-Sahiihayn it was reported from 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (RAA) that a Jewish man said to him, "O ameer al-mu'mineen, there is an aayah in your Book which you recite; if it had come to us Jews, we would have taken that day as an 'eid (festival)." 'Umar said: "Which aayah?" He said: "...This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion..." (Al-Qur‘aan 5:3 – interpretation of the meaning). 'Umar said: "We know on which day and in which place that was revealed to the Prophet (SAAS). It was when he was standing at 'Arafah on a Friday."


    It is a day of 'eid for the people who are in that place.

The Prophet (SAAS) said: "Yawm ‘Arafah (the day of 'Arafah), yawm an-Nahr (the day of Sacrifice) and ayyaam at-Tashreeq (the 3 days following yawm an-Nahr) are 'eid (festival) for us, the people of Islam. These are days of eating and drinking." This was narrated by the authors of as-Sunan. It was reported that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (RAA) said: "It – i.e., the aayah: 'This day, I have perfected…' was revealed on a Friday, the day of 'Arafah, both of which – all praises and thanks are due to Allah – are a'yaad for us."


    It is a day by which Allah swore an oath.

The Almighty cannot swear by anything except that which is mighty. Yawm 'Arafah is the "witnessed day" mentioned in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning): "And by the Witnessing Day (i.e. Friday), and by the Witnessed Day [i.e. the day of 'Arafah (hajj) the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah)." (Al-Qur‘aan 85:3)

It was reported from Abu Huraira (RAA) that the Prophet (SAAS) said: "The promised day is the Day of Resurrection, the witnessed day is the day of 'Arafah, and the witnessing day is Friday." (Narrated by at-Tirmidhi and classed as sahiih by al-Albaani.)

It is the "odd" [i.e., odd-numbered, witr] by which Allah swore in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning): "And by the even and the odd." (Al-Qur‘aan 89:3) Ibn 'Abbaas (RAA) said: "The even is the day of al-Adhaa [i.e., 10th of Dhul-Hijjah] and the odd is the day of 'Arafah [i.e., 9th of Dhul-Hijjah]." This is also the view of 'Ikrimah and ad-Dahhaak.


    Fasting on this day is an expiation (of sins) for two years.

It was reported from Abu Qataadah (RAA) that Allah's Messenger (SAAS) was asked about fasting on the day of 'Arafah. He (SAAS) said: "It expiates for the sins of the previous year and of the coming year." (Narrated by Muslim)

This (fasting) is mustahabb for those who are not on hajj. In the case of the one who is on hajj, it is not sunnah for him to fast on the day of 'Arafah, because the Prophet (SAAS) did not fast on this day at 'Arafah. It was narrated that he forbade fasting on the day of 'Arafah at 'Arafah.


    It is the day on which Allah took the covenant from the progeny of Adam.

It was reported that ibn 'Abbaas (RAA) said: Allah's Messenger (SAAS) said: "Allah took the covenant from the loins of Adam in Na'maan, i.e., 'Arafah. He brought forth from his loins all his offspring and spread them before Him, then He addressed them, and said: 'Am I not your Lord?' They said: 'Yes! We testify,' lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: 'Verily, we have been unaware of this.' Or lest you should say: 'It was only our fathers aforetime who took others as partners in worship along with Allah, and we were (merely their) descendents after them; will You then destroy us because of the deeds of men who practised al-baatel (i.e. polytheism and committing crimes and sins, invoking and worshipping others besides Allah)?' (Al-Qur‘aan 7:172-173 – interpretation of the meaning)." (Narrated by Ahmad and classed as sahiih by al-Albaani.) And there is no greater day than this and no greater covenant than this.


    It is the day of forgiveness of sins, freedom from the Fire and pride in the people who are there.

In Sahiih Muslim it is narrated from 'Aisha (RAA) that the Prophet (SAAS) said: "There is no day on which Allah frees more people from the Fire than the day of 'Arafah. He comes close and expresses His pride (of His servants) to the angels, saying, 'What do these people want?'"

It was reported from ibn 'Umar (RAA) that the Prophet (SAAS) said: "Allah expresses His pride to His angels at the time of 'ishaa‘ on the day of 'Arafah, about the people of 'Arafah. He says, 'Look at My servants who have come (to Me) unkempt and dusty.'" (Narrated by Ahmad and classed as sahiih by al-Albaani.)

And Allah knows best.

[Sheikh Muhammad Saaleh al-Munajjid (www.islam-qa.com)]


Virtues of the day of Sacrifice

Question #36477:

Are there any special features of the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah?

Answer:

All praises and thanks are due to Allah.

When the Prophet (SAAS) came to Medina, he found that they had two days on which they used to play. He (SAAS) said: "Allah has given you two days better than these, the day of al-Fitr and the day of al-Adhaa." (Narrated by Abu Dawud, 1134; classed as sahiih by al-Albaani in as-Silsilah as-Sahiihah, 2021.)

Allah has given this ummah two days for playing and leisure, two days for remembering Allah and thanking Him, and asking Him for forgiveness. In this world the believers have three festivals or a'yaad: One 'eid which is repeated each week, and two a'yaad which come once a year. The 'eid which is repeated every week is Friday (Jumu'ah). The a'yaad which are not repeated, which come only once each year, are:

  1. 'Eid al-Fitr, the breaking of the Ramadan fast. This comes upon the completion of fasting during the month of Ramadan, which is the third pillar of Islam. When the Muslims have finished fasting the month that is enjoined upon them, Allah has prescribed that they should follow the completion of their fast with a festival on which they gather to thank Allah, remember Him and glorify Him for His guidance. On that 'eid it is prescribed for them to pray and give charity.

  2. 'Eid al-Adhaa (the Feast of Sacrifice), which is the tenth day of the month of Dhul-Hijjah. This is the greater and better of the two feasts, which comes after the completion of the hajj, for when the Muslims complete their hajj they are forgiven. Rather hajj is completed on the day of 'Arafah (the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah) with the standing at 'Arafah, which is the major pillar of hajj, as the Prophet (SAAS) said: "Hajj is 'Arafah." [Narrated by at-Tirmidhi (889) and classed as sahiih by al-Albaani in Irwaa‘ al-Ghaleel (1064).]

The day of 'Arafah is the day of ransom from the Fire, when Allah ransoms from Hellfire those who stood at 'Arafah and Muslims who did not stand at 'Arafah. Hence the day that follows it is a festival for all Muslims in all regions, those who attended hajj and those who did not. It is prescribed for all of them to draw closer to Allah by means of the ritual of shedding the sacrificial blood. The virtues of this day may be summed up as follows:


    It is the best of days before Allah.

Ibn al-Qayyim rahimahullaah said in Zaad al-Ma'aad (1/54): The best of days before Allah is the day of Sacrifice, which is the greatest day of hajj as it says in Sunan Abu Dawud (1765), where it is narrated that the Prophet (SAAS) said: "The greatest of days before Allah is the day of Sacrifice." (Classed as sahiih by al-Albaani in Sahiih Abi Dawud.)


    It is the greatest day of hajj.

It was narrated that ibn 'Umar (RAA) said: The Prophet (SAAS) stood between the jamaraat on the day of Sacrifice during his hajj and said: "This is the greatest day of hajj." (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 1742) That is because the greatest actions of hajj take place on this day, when the pilgrims do the following:

      Stoning jamrat-ul-'Aqabah

      Offering the sacrifice

      Shaving the head or cutting the hair

      Tawaaf (circumambulation of the Ka'bah)

      Sa'y (running between as-Safa and al-Marwah)


    It is the 'eid day of the Muslims.

The Prophet (SAAS) said: "The day of 'Arafah, the day of Sacrifice, and the days of at-Tashreeq are our festival, us Muslims, and they are days of eating and drinking." (Narrated by at-Tirmidhi, 773; classed as sahiih by al-Albaani in Sahiih at-Tirmidhi.)

And Allah knows best. [Islam Q&A (www.islam-qa.com)]


Etiquettes of 'eid

Question #36442:

What are the sunan (plural of sunna) and etiquettes that we should act in accordance with on the day of 'eid?

Answer:

All praises and thanks are due to Allah.

The sunan that the Muslim should observe on the day of 'eid are as follows:


    Doing ghosl before going out to the prayer.

It was narrated in a sahiih hadiith in al-Muwatta‘ and elsewhere that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (RAA) used to do ghosl on the day of al-Fitr before going out to the prayer-place in the morning. (Al-Muwatta‘ 428)

An-Nawawi rahimahullaah said that the Muslims were unanimously agreed that it is mustahabb to do ghosl for 'eid prayer. The reason why it is mustahabb is the same reason as that for doing ghosl before jumu'ah and other public gatherings. Rather on 'eid the reason is even stronger.


    Eating before going out to pray on 'eid al-Fitr and after the prayer on 'eid al-Adhaa:

Part of the etiquette is not to go out to pray on 'eid al-Fitr until one has eaten some dates, because of the hadiith narrated by al-Bukhari from Anas ibn Malik (RAA), who said that Allah's Messenger (SAAS) used not to go out on the morning of 'eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates… of which he would eat an odd number. (Al-Bukhari, 953)

It is mustahabb to eat before going out to emphasize the fact that it is forbidden to fast on that day and to demonstrate that the fast has ended. Ibn Hajar rahimahullaah suggested that the reason for that was so as to ward off the possibility of adding to the fast, and to hasten to obey the command of Allah. (Al-Fath, 2/446)

Whoever does not have any dates may break his fast with anything that is permissible. But on 'eid al-Adhaa it is mustahabb not to eat anything until one comes back from the prayer, so he should eat from the udhiyah if he has offered a sacrifice. If he is not going to offer a sacrifice there is nothing wrong with eating before the prayer.


    Takbeer on the day of 'eid.

This is one of the greatest sunan on the day of 'eid because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): "…(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah [i.e. to say takbeer (Allaahu akbar: Allah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him." (Al-Qur‘aan 2:185)

It was narrated that al-Waleed ibn Muslim said: I asked al-Awza'i and Malik ibn Anas about saying takbeer out loud on the two a'yaad. They said: Yes, 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (RAA) used to say it out loud on the day of al-Fitr until the imam came out (to lead the prayers).

It was narrated in a sahiih report that 'Abdurrahman as-Sulami said: "They emphasized it more on the day of al-Fitr than the day of al-Adhaa." Wakee' said: This refers to the takbeer. (See Irwaa‘ al-Ghaleel, 3/122.)

Ad-Daraqutni and others narrated that on the morning of 'eid al-Fitr and 'eid al-Adhaa, ibn 'Umar (RAA) would strive hard in reciting takbeer until he came to the prayer-place, then he would recite takbeer until the imam came out.

Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated with a sahiih isnaad that az-Zuhri said: The people used to recite takbeer on 'eid when they came out of their houses until they came to the prayer-place, and until the imam came out. When the imam came out they fell silent, and when he said takbeer they said takbeer. (See Irwaa‘ al-Ghaleel, 1/121.)

Saying takbeer when coming out of one's house to the prayer-place and until the imam came out was something that was well known among the Salaf (early generations). This has been narrated by a number of scholars such as ibn Abi Shaybah, 'Abd ar-Razzaaq and al-Firyaabi in Ahkaam al-'Eidayn from a group of the Salaf. For example, Naafi' ibn Jubayr used to recite takbeer and was astonished that the people did not do so, and he said, "Why do you not recite takbeer?"

Ibn Shihaab az-Zuhri rahimahullaah used to say, "The people used to recite takbeer from the time they came out of their houses until the imam came in."

The time for takbeer on 'eid al-Fitr starts from the night before 'eid until the imam enters to lead the 'eid prayer. In the case of 'eid al-Adhaa, the takbeer begins on the first day of Dhul-Hijjah and lasts until sunset on the last of the days of Tashreeq.


Description of the takbeer:

It was narrated in the Musannaf of ibn Abi Shaybah with a sahiih isnaad from ibn Mas'ud (RAA) that he used to recite takbeer during the days of Tashreeq:

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha illa Allah,

wa Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa lillaahilhamd

The English translation is: Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, there is no god but Allah, Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, and all praises and thanks are due to Allah.

It was also narrated elsewhere by ibn Abi Shaybah with the same isnaad, but with the phrase "Allaahu akbar" repeated three times.

Al-Mahaamili narrated with a sahiih isnaad also from ibn Mas'ud (RAA):

Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbaru kabeera,

Allaahu akbar wa ajall, Allaahu akbar wa lillaahilhamd

The English translation is: Allah is Most Great indeed, Allah is Most Great indeed, Allah is Most Great and Glorified, Allah is Most Great and all praises and thanks are due to Allah. (See al-Irwaa‘, 3/126.)


    Offering congratulations.

The etiquette of 'eid also includes the congratulations and good wishes exchanged by people, no matter what the wording, such as saying to one another taqabbala Allah minna wa minkum [May Allah accept (good deeds) from us and from you] or 'eid mubaarak and other permissible expressions of congratulations.

It was narrated that Jubayr ibn Nufayr said: When the companions of the Prophet (SAAS) met one another on the day of 'eid, they would say to one another, "May Allah accept (good deeds) from us and from you." (Ibn Hajar said its isnaad is hasan. Al-Fath, 2/446.)

Offering congratulations was something that was well known among the sahaabah, and scholars such as Imam Ahmad and others allowed it. There is evidence which suggests that it is prescribed to offer congratulations and good wishes on special occasions, and that the sahaabah congratulated one another when good things happened, such as when Allah accepted the repentance of a man, they went and congratulated him for that, and so on.

Undoubtedly these congratulations are among the noble characteristics among the Muslims.

The least that may be said concerning the subject of congratulations is that you should return the greetings of those who congratulate you on 'eid, and keep quiet if others keep quiet, as Imam Ahmad rahimahullaah said: If anyone congratulates you, then respond, otherwise do not initiate it.


    Adorning oneself on the occasion of 'eid.

It was narrated that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (RAA) said that 'Umar (RAA) took a brocade cloak that was for sale in the market and brought it to Allah's Messenger (SAAS), and said: "O Allah's Messenger, buy this and adorn yourself with it for 'eid and for receiving the delegations." Allah's Messenger (SAAS) said to him: "Rather this is the dress of one who has no share (of piety or of reward in the Hereafter)…" (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 948)

The Prophet (SAAS) agreed with 'Umar (RAA) on the idea of adorning oneself for 'eid, but he denounced him for choosing this cloak because it was made of silk.

It was narrated that Jabir (RAA) said: The Prophet (SAAS) had a cloak which he would wear on the two a'yaad and on Fridays. (Sahiih ibn Khuzaymah, 1756)

Al-Baihaqee narrated with a sahiih isnaad that ibn 'Umar (RAA) used to wear his best clothes on 'eid. So a man should wear the best clothes that he has when going out for 'eid.

With regard to women, they should avoid adorning themselves when they go out for 'eid, because they are forbidden to show off their adornments to non-mahram men. It is also haraam for women who want to go out to put on perfume or to expose men to temptation, because they are only going out for the purpose of worship.


    Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another.

It was narrated that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah (RAA) said: On the day of 'eid, the Prophet (SAAS) used to vary his route. (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 986)

It was said that the reason for that was so that the two routes would testify for him on the Day of Resurrection, for the earth will speak on the Day of Resurrection and say what was done on it, both good and bad.

And it was said that it was in order to manifest the symbols of Islam on both routes, or to manifest the remembrance of Allah (dhikr), or to annoy the hypocrites and Jews, and to scare them with the large number of people who were with him. And it was said that it was in order to attend to the people's needs, to answer their questions, teach them, set an example and give charity to the needy, or to visit his relatives and uphold the ties of kinship.

And Allah knows best. [Islam Q&A (www.islam-qa.com)]


Question #49014:

I would like to know some of the sunan of 'eid and the rulings thereon.

Answer:

All praises and thanks are due to Allah.

Allah has set out several rulings concerning 'eid, including the following:


    It is mustahabb to recite takbeer during the night of 'eid from sunset on the last day of Ramadan until the imam comes to lead the prayer. The format of the takbeer is as follows:

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha illa Allah,

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa lillaahilhamd

The English translation is: Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, there is no god except Allah, Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, and all praises and thanks are due to Allah.

Or you can say Allaahu akbar three times, so you say:

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha illa Allah,

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa lillaahilhamd

The English translation is: Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, there is no god except Allah, Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, and all praises and thanks are due to Allah.

Both are permissible.

Men should raise their voices reciting this dhikr in the marketplaces, mosques and homes, but women should not raise their voices.


    You should eat an odd number of dates before leaving for the 'eid prayer, because the Prophet (SAAS) did not set out on the day of 'eid until he had eaten an odd number of dates. You should stick to an odd number as the Prophet (SAAS) did.


    You should wear your best clothes – this is for men. With regard to women, they should not wear beautiful clothes when they go out to the 'eid prayer-place, because the Prophet (SAAS) said: "Let them go out looking decent" i.e., in regular clothes that are not fancy. It is haraam for them to go out wearing perfume and makeup.


    Some of the scholars regarded it as mustahabb to do ghosl for the 'eid prayer, because it is narrated that some of the Salaf did this. Doing ghosl for 'eid prayer is mustahabb, just as it is prescribed for jumu'ah because one is going to meet people. So if one does ghosl, that is good.


    The 'eid prayer. The Muslims are unanimously agreed that the 'eid prayer is prescribed in Islam. Some of them say that it is sunnah, some say that it is fard kifaayah (a communal obligation) and some say that it is fard 'ayn (an individual obligation), and that not doing it is a sin. They quoted as evidence the fact that the Prophet (SAAS) commanded even the virgins and women in seclusion, i.e., those who did not ordinarily come out, to attend the 'eid prayer-place, except that those who were menstruating should keep away from the prayer-place itself, because it is not permissible for a menstruating woman to stay in the mosque; it is permissible for her to pass through but not to stay there.

It seems to me, based on the evidence, that it is fard 'ayn (an individual obligation) and that every male is obliged to attend the 'eid prayer except for those who have an excuse. This was the view favoured by Sheikh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah rahimahullaah.

In the first rak'ah the imam should recite sabbih-isma Rabbika al-a'laa (suurat al-A'laa 87) and in the second rak'ah he should recite hal ataaka hadiith-ul-ghaashiyah (suurat al-Ghaashiyah 88). Or he may recite suurat Qaaf (50) in the first and suurat al-Qamar (54) in the second. Both options are narrated in sahiih reports from Allah's Messenger Muhammad (SAAS).


    If Jumu'ah and 'eid fall on the same day, the 'eid prayer should be held, as should jumu'ah prayer, as is indicated by the apparent meaning of the hadiith of an-Nu'maan ibn Basheer which was narrated by Muslim in his Sahiih. But those who attend the 'eid prayer with the imam may attend jumu'ah if they wish, or they may pray dhohr.


    One of the rulings on 'eid prayer is that according to many scholars, if a person comes to the 'eid prayer-place before the imam comes, he should sit down and not pray two raka'aat, because the Prophet (SAAS) prayed 'eid with two raka'aat, and he did not offer any prayer before or after it.

Some of the scholars are of the view that when a person comes he should not sit down until he has prayed two raka'aat, because the 'eid prayer-place is a mosque, based on the fact that menstruating women are not allowed there, so it comes under the same rulings as a mosque, which indicates that it is a mosque. Based on this, it comes under the general meaning of the words of the Prophet (SAAS): "When any one of you enters the mosque, let him not sit down until he has prayed two raka'aat." With regard to the fact that the Prophet (SAAS) did not offer any prayer before or after the 'eid prayer, that is because when he arrived the prayer started.

Thus it is proven that we should pray tahiyyat al-masjid (two raka'aat to "greet the mosque") when arriving at the 'eid prayer-place, as in the case of all mosques, because if we assume from the hadiith that there is no tahiyyat al-masjid for the 'eid mosque, then we should say that there is no tahiyyat al-masjid for the jumu'ah mosque either, because when Allah's Messenger (SAAS) arrived at the jumu'ah mosque he would deliver the khotbah, then pray two raka'aat then leave and pray the regular sunan of jumu'ah in his house, so he did not offer any prayer before it or after it (in the mosque).

What seems more likely to be correct in my view is that we should pray two raka'aat in the 'eid prayer-place to greet the mosque, but we should not denounce one another with regard to this issue, because it is a matter concerning which the scholars differ. We should not denounce others with regard to matters where the scholars differ, unless there is a clear text. So we should not denounce the one who prays (tahiyyat al-masjid) or the one who sits down without praying.


    One of the rulings on the day of 'eid'eid al-Fitr – is that zakaat al-Fitr is due on this day. The Prophet (SAAS) enjoined that it should be paid before the 'eid prayer. It is permissible to pay it one or two days before that, because of the hadiith of ibn 'Umar (RAA) which was narrated by al-Bukhari: "They used to give it one or two days before ('eid) al-Fitr." If it is paid after the 'eid prayer, it does not count as sadaqat al-Fitr, because of the hadiith of ibn 'Abbaas: "Whoever pays it before the prayer, it is zakaat al-Fitr, and whoever pays it after the prayer, it is ordinary charity." It is haraam to delay zakaat al-Fitr until after the 'eid prayer. If one delays it with no excuse then it is not acceptable zakaah, but if there is an excuse – such as if a person is travelling and does not have anything to give or anyone to give it to, or he is expecting his family to pay it and they are expecting him to pay it, then in this case he should pay it when it is easy for him to do so, even if that is after the prayer, and there is no sin on him because he has an excuse.


    People should greet one another, but that results in haraam actions on the part of many people, such as men entering houses and shaking hands with unveiled women without any mahram being present. Some of these evils are worse than others.

We see some people denouncing the one who refuses to shake hands with those who are not his mahaarim (plural of mahram), but it is they who are the wrongdoers, not he. But he should explain to them and tell them to ask trustworthy scholars to verify his actions and he should tell them not to get angry and insist on following the customs of forefathers, because they (customs) do not make a permissible thing forbidden or a forbidden thing permissible. He should explain to them that if they do that, they will be like those of whom Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): "And similarly, We sent not a warner before you [O Muhammad (SAAS)] to any town (people) but the luxurious ones among them said: 'We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.'" (Al-Qur‘aan 43:23)

Some people have the custom of going out to the graveyard on the day of 'eid to greet the occupants of the graves, but the occupants of the graves have no need of any greeting or congratulations, because they do not fast or pray qiyaam.

Visiting the graves is not something to be done especially on the day of 'eid or Friday or any particular day. It was proven that the Prophet (SAAS) visited the graves at night, as mentioned in the hadiith of 'Aisha (RAA) narrated by Muslim. And the Prophet (SAAS) said: "Visit the graves for they will remind you of the Hereafter."

Visiting graves is an act of worship, and acts of worship are not acceptable unless they are in accordance with sharee'ah. The Prophet (SAAS) did not single out the day of 'eid for visiting the graves, so we should not do so either.


    There is nothing wrong with what men do on the day of 'eid of embracing one another.


    It is prescribed for the one who goes out to the 'eid prayer to go by one route and return by another, following the example of Allah's Messenger (SAAS). This sunnah does not apply to other prayers, jumu'ah or anything else, it only applies to 'eid.

Majmuu' Fataawaa ibn 'Utheimeen, 16/216-223. [Islam Q&A (www.islam-qa.com)]


Guidance of the Prophet (SAAS) regarding 'eid prayers

Question #49020:

I would like to know the guidance of the Prophet (SAAS) regarding 'eid prayers.

Answer:

All praises and thanks are due to Allah.

The Prophet (SAAS) used to offer the 'eid prayers in the prayer-place (musalla). There is no report of his offering the 'eid prayer in his mosque. Ash-Shafi'i said in al-Umm: It was narrated that Allah's Messenger (SAAS) used to go out on the two a'yaad to the prayer-place in Medina, as did those (caliphs) who came after him, unless there was an excuse such as rain etc. The people of other lands did likewise, apart from the people of Mecca.

He (SAAS) used to wear his most beautiful garments to go out to pray. He had a suit (hullah) which he would wear for 'eid and jumu'ah (Friday prayer). A hullah is a two-piece suit of the same kind of fabric.

He (SAAS) used to eat dates before going out on 'eid al-Fitr, and he would eat an odd number of them. Al-Bukhari (953) narrated that Anas (RAA) said: Allah's Messenger (SAAS) did not go out on the morning of 'eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates, and he would eat an odd number. Ibn Qudaamah said: We do not know of any differing opinion concerning the fact that it is mustahabb to eat early on the day of 'eid al-Fitr.

The reason for eating before the prayer is so that no one will think that it is essential to fast until the prayer has been offered. And it was said that this was in order to hasten to obey the command of Allah Who enjoined breaking the fast after He enjoined fasting. If no dates are available, he should have something else for breakfast, even if it is only water, so that he can fulfil the sunnah in principle, which is to have something for breakfast before praying on 'eid al-Fitr.

With regard to 'eid al-Adhaa, the Prophet (SAAS) used not to eat anything until he came back from the prayer-place, then he would eat some of the meat of his sacrifice.

It was narrated that he (SAAS) used to do ghosl for both a'yaad. Ibn al-Qayyim said: Two weak (da'iif) ahadiith have been narrated concerning this… but it was proven from ibn 'Umar (RAA), who was very keen to follow the Sunnah, that he used to do ghosl before going out on the day of 'eid.

And he (SAAS) used to go out to the 'eid prayer walking, and come back walking. Ibn Maajah (1295) narrated that ibn 'Umar (RAA) said: Allah's Messenger (SAAS) used to go out to the 'eid (prayer) walking and come back walking. (Classed as sahiih by al-Albaani in Sahiih ibn Maajah.)

At-Tirmidhi (530) narrated that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (RAA) said: It is sunnah to go out to the 'eid (prayer) walking. (Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Sahiih at-Tirmidhi.)

At-Tirmidhi said: Most of the scholars followed this hadiith and said that it is mustahabb for a man to go out to the 'eid (prayer) walking. It is mustahabb for him not to ride unless he has an excuse.

When the Prophet (SAAS) reached the prayer-place, he would begin the prayer with no adhaan or iqaamah, and without saying "as-salaatu jaami'ah (prayer is about to begin)." The sunnah is not to do any of these things. And he did not offer any prayer in the prayer-place before or after the 'eid prayer.

The Prophet (SAAS) would start with the prayer, before the khotbah. He prayed two raka'aat, with seven consecutive takbeeraat in the first rak'ah, including takbeerat al-ihraam (the takbeer with which the prayer begins), and a brief pause between each two takbeeraat. There is no report of him saying any particular dhikr between the takbeeraat, but it was narrated that ibn Mas'ud (RAA) would praise Allah and send blessings upon the Prophet (SAAS). But ibn 'Umar (RAA), who was always keen to follow the Prophet (SAAS), used to raise his hands with each takbeer.

When he (SAAS) had completed the takbeeraat, he would start to recite. He would recite al-Faatihah then recite qaaf wal-Qur‘aan-il-majeed (suurat Qaaf 50) in the first rak'ah and iqtarabat-is-saa'ah wa-anshaqqa al-qamar (suurat al-Qamar 54) in the other. Sometimes he recited sabbih-isma Rabbika al-a'laa (suurat al-A'laa 87) and hal ataaka hadiith-ul-ghaashiyah (suurat al-Ghaashiyah 88). Both were narrated in sahiih reports, but no other suwar are mentioned in sahiih reports. When he had finished reciting he would say takbeer and bow. When he had finished bowing and prostrating and had stood up again, he would say five takbeeraat. When he had completed the takbeeraat he would start to recite again. The takbeer was the first thing that he would do in each rak'ah and his recitation was followed by rokuu' (bowing).

At-Tirmidhi narrated from the hadiith of Kathiir ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn 'Awf, from his father, from his grandfather, that Allah's Messenger (SAAS) recited takbeer in the 'eid (prayer), seven times in the first rak'ah before reciting Qur‘aan and five times in the second rak'ah before reciting Qur‘aan. At-Tirmidhi said: I asked Muhammad – i.e., al-Bukhari – about this hadiith and he said: There is nothing more sound than this concerning this topic. And I say likewise.

When the Prophet (SAAS) had finished the prayer, he would move away and stand facing the people, with the people sitting in their rows, and he would address them, preaching and exhorting, with commands and prohibitions. If he wanted to dispatch anyone on a mission he would do so, and if he wanted to enjoin anything he would do that.

There was no minbar on which he would stand, and the minbar of Medina was not brought out. Rather he would address them standing on the ground. Jabir (RAA) said: I attended 'eid prayer with Allah's Messenger (SAAS). He started with the prayer before the khotbah, with no adhaan and no iqaamah, then he stood, leaning on Bilal, and enjoined us to fear and obey Allah. He preached to the people and reminded them, then he went over to the women and preached to them and reminded them. (Agreed upon)

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (RAA) said: The Prophet (SAAS) used to go out on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adhaa to the prayer-place. He would start with the prayer, then he would go and stand facing the people, with the people sitting in their rows… (This hadiith was narrated by Muslim.)

The Prophet (SAAS) started all his khotab with praise of Allah. It is not narrated even in one hadiith that he started the khotbah of 'eid with takbeer. Rather ibn Maajah narrated in his Sunan (1287) that Sa'd al-Qaraz, the muezzin of the Prophet (SAAS), said: The Prophet (SAAS) used to say the takbeer between the two sermons and he used to say takbeer a great deal throughout the khotbah of 'eid. This was classed as da'iif by al-Albaani in Da'iif ibn Maajah. Although the hadiith is da'iif, it does not indicate that the Prophet (SAAS) used to begin his khotbah with takbeer. It says in Tamaam al-Minnah: Although it does not indicate that it is prescribed to begin the 'eid khotbah with takbeer, its isnaad is da'iif and includes one man who is da'iif (weak) and another who is majhuul (unknown), so it is not permissible to quote it as evidence that it is sunnah to say takbeer during the khotbah.

Ibn al-Qayyim said: People differed as to how the khotbah on 'eid and on the occasion of prayers for rain (istisqaa‘) should begin. It was said that they should begin with takbeer and it was said that the khotbah of istisqaa‘ should begin with prayers for forgiveness, and it was said that they should begin with praise. Sheikh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah said: This is the correct view. The Prophet (SAAS) used to begin all his khotab with praise of Allah.

The Prophet (SAAS) granted a concession allowing those who attended the 'eid prayers either to sit and listen to the khotbah, or to leave. Abu Dawud (1155) narrated that 'Abdullah ibn as-Saa‘ib (RAA) said: I attended 'eid (prayer) with Allah's Messenger (SAAS), and when he had finished the prayer he said: "We are going to deliver the khotbah, so whoever wants to sit and listen to the khotbah, let him do so, and whoever wants to leave, let him go." (Classed as sahiih by al-Albaani in Sahiih Abi Dawud.)

The Prophet (SAAS) used to vary his route on the day of 'eid. He would go by one route and come back by another. Al-Bukhari narrated (986) that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah (RAA) said: On the day of 'eid, the Prophet (SAAS) used to vary his route. [Islam Q&A (www.islam-qa.com)]


Mistakes made on 'eid

Question #36856:

What are the mistakes and wrong actions that the Muslims are warned against on the two a'yaad? We see some actions which we denounce such as visiting graves after the 'eid prayer and staying up to worship on the night of 'eid

Answer:

All praises and thanks are due to Allah.

As 'eid is approaching, we would like to point out some things that some people do out of ignorance of the laws of Allah and the Sunnah of Allah's Messenger (SAAS). These include the following:


    The belief of some that it is prescribed to spend the night of 'eid in worship.

Some people believe that it is prescribed to spend the night of 'eid in worship. This is a kind of innovation (bid'ah) and is not proven from the Prophet (SAAS). Rather it was narrated in a da'iif (weak) hadiith which says: "Whoever stays up on the night of 'eid, his heart will not die on the day when hearts die." This hadiith is not sahiih. It was narrated via two asaaniid, one of which is maudoo' (fabricated) and the other is da'iif jiddan (very weak). See Silsilat al-ahaadiith ad-Da'iifah wal-Maudoo'ah by al-Albaani, 520, 521.

It is not prescribed to single out the night of 'eid to pray qiyaam to the exclusion of all other nights, unlike the one whose habit it is to pray qiyaam, in which case there is nothing wrong with him praying qiyaam on the night of 'eid.


    Visiting graves on the two 'eid days.

This is contrary to the purpose of 'eid which is to express joy and happiness, and it goes against the teaching of the Prophet (SAAS) and the actions of the Salaf. It comes under the general meaning of the Prophet's prohibition on visiting graves on a specific day and making that like a festival, as the scholars stated. See Ahkaam al-Janaa‘iz wa Bida'uha by al-Albaani, p. 219, 258.


    Forsaking the jamaa'ah and sleeping late and missing the prayer.

Unfortunately you see some of the Muslims missing the prayer and forsaking the jamaa'ah. The Prophet (SAAS) said: "The covenant that stands between us and them is the prayer; whoever forsakes it is a kaafir." (Narrated by at-Tirmidhi, 2621; an-Nasaa‘ee, 463; classed as sahiih by al-Albaani in Sahiih at-Tirmidhi.)

And he (SAAS) said: "The most burdensome prayers for the hypocrites are the 'ishaa‘ and fajr prayers. If they knew (what goodness) there is in them, they would come to them even if they had to crawl. I had thought of ordering the call to prayer to be given, then I would tell a man to lead the people in prayer, then I would go, taking some men with me carrying bundles of wood, to people who do not attend the prayer, and would burn their houses down around them." (Narrated by Muslim, 651)


    Women mixing with men in the prayer-place, the streets and elsewhere, and crowding together with men in those places. This is a source of great fitnah (temptation) and serious danger. Both women and men should be warned against that, and the necessary means should be taken to prevent that as much as possible. Men and youth should not leave the prayer-place or the mosque until after the women have dispersed completely.


    Some women going out wearing perfume and makeup, and without veils.

This is a problem which is widespread, and many people take this matter lightly. Allah is the One Whose help we seek. Some women – may Allah guide them – even dress up in their finest clothes and put on the best perfume when they go to the mosque to pray taraaweeh or go to the 'eid prayers, etc. The Prophet (SAAS) said: "Any woman who puts on perfume and passes by people so that they can smell her fragrance, is an adulteress." (Narrated by an-Nasaa‘ee, 5126; at-Tirmidhi, 2783; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Sahiih at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb, 2019.)

It was narrated that Abu Huraira (RAA) said: Allah's Messenger (SAAS) said: "There are two types of the people of Hell whom I have not seen. People with whips like the tails of cattle with which they beat the people, and women who are clothed yet naked, going astray and leading others astray, with their heads looking like the humps of camels, leaning to one side. They will not enter Paradise nor even smell its fragrance, although its fragrance may be detected from such and such a distance." (Narrated by Muslim, 2128)

The guardians of women must fear Allah with regard to those who are under their care, and fulfil the duty of protecting and maintaining them that Allah has enjoined upon them, because, "Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other…" (Al-Qur‘aan 4:34 – interpretation of the meaning)

So they must guide them and show them that which will lead to their salvation and their safety in this world and in the Hereafter, by means of keeping away from that which Allah has forbidden and striving for that which will bring them closer to Allah.


    Listening to singing and haraam things.

Among the evil things that are widespread in these times is music and singing. They have become very widespread and people take this matter lightly. It is on TV and radio, in cars, homes and marketplaces. There is no power and no strength except with Allah. Even cell phones are not free of this evil. There are companies which compete in putting the latest music on the ringers of their cell phones, and in this way music has even reached the mosques, may Allah protect us… This is a great problem and a great evil whereby music is heard in the houses of Allah. This confirms the words of the Prophet (SAAS), "There will be among my ummah people who will regard adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments as permissible." (Narrated by al-Bukhari)

The Muslim has to fear Allah and realize that the blessing of Allah means that he is obliged to give thanks to Him. It is not gratitude for the Muslim to disobey his Lord, when He is the One Who has bestowed this blessing upon him.

One of the righteous passed by some people who were engaged in idle entertainment on the day of 'eid and said to them: "If you did well in Ramadan, this is not the way to give thanks for that. If you did badly in Ramadan, this is not the way that the one who did badly should behave."

And Allah knows best. [Islam Q&A (www.islam-qa.com)]


Virtues of the days of Tashreeq

Question #36950:

What are the days of Tashreeq? What is special about them and distinguishes them from other days?

Answer:

All praises and thanks are due to Allah.

The days of Tashreeq are the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah. There are several verses and ahaadiith which speak of their virtue:

  1. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): "And remember Allah during the Appointed Days…" (Al-Qur‘aan 2:203). These are the days of Tashreeq. This was the view of ibn 'Umar (RAA) and most of the scholars.

  2. The Prophet (SAAS) said concerning the days of Tashreeq: "They are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah." Dhikr (remembering Allah) is enjoined during the days of Tashreeq in several ways:


    • Remembering Allah immediately after the prescribed prayers by reciting takbeer. This is prescribed until the end of the days of Tashreeq according to the majority of scholars.


      Remembering Him by saying bismillaah and Allaahu akbar when slaughtering the sacrificial animal. The time for slaughtering the hadiy and udhiyah lasts until the end of days of Tashreeq.


      Remembering Allah when eating and drinking. It is prescribed when eating and drinking to say bismillaah at the beginning, and to praise Him (say al-hamdulillaah) at the end. According to the hadiith narrated from the Prophet (SAAS): "Allah likes His slave when he eats something to praise Him for it, and when he drinks something to praise Him for it." (Narrated by Muslim, 2734)


      Remembering Him by saying takbeer when stoning the jamaraat on the days of Tashreeq. This applies only to the pilgrims on hajj.


      Remembering Allah in general. It is mustahabb to make a lot of dhikr during the days of Tashreeq. 'Umar (RAA) used to recite takbeer in Mina in his tent, and when the people heard him they recited takbeer too and Mina echoed with the sound of their takbeer. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): "So when you have accomplished your manaasik (rituals of hajj), remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with a far more remembrance. But of mankind there are some who say: 'Our Lord! Give us (Your Bounties) in this world!' and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter. And of them there are some who say: 'Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!'" (Al-Qur‘aan 2:200-201)

    Many of the Salaf regarded it as mustahabb to make a lot of du'aa‘ during the days of Tashreeq.

    The words of the Prophet (SAAS), "These are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah" indicate that eating and drinking during the days of 'eid are means that help one to remember Allah and obey Him; perfect gratitude for the blessing means using it to help one obey and worship Allah.

    In His Book Allah commands us to eat of good things and thank Him for them. So whoever uses Allah's blessings to commit sin is showing ingratitude for the blessing of Allah, so he deserves to have it taken away from him.

  3. The Prophet (SAAS) forbade fasting on these days: "Do not fast on these days, for they are the days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah." (Narrated by Ahmad, 10286; classed as sahiih by al-Albaani in as-Silsilah as-Sahiihah, 3573.)

See Lataa‘if al-Ma'aarif by ibn Rajab, p. 500.

O Allah, help us to do righteous deeds and make us steadfast until death; have mercy on us, O Most Generous Giver. All praises and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. [Islam Q&A (www.islam-qa.com)]


Conclusion

Allah, the Almighty, has completed the religion and perfected His grace, and His Prophet Muhammad (SAAS) has conveyed the message openly and informed the people of his nation of all such ways that will lead them to Paradise and save them from Hellfire. Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "…This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion (to wean you from your religion); so fear them not, but fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…" (Al-Qur‘aan 5:3)

Therefore, we have to beware of imitating non-Muslims in their celebrations and of deeds that contradict the teachings of Islam, such as women openly displaying themselves, going out perfumed, and mixing with non-mahram. And arranging parties where songs are accompanied by musical instruments and the like.

Muslims are commanded to follow and forbidden to innovate. This is because of the perfection of the Islamic religion. Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "…And whatsoever the Messenger [Muhammad (SAAS)] gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). And fear Allah; verily, Allah is Severe in punishment." (Al-Qur‘aan 59:7)

Allah's Messenger Muhammad (SAAS) used to say in every Friday sermon: "The best of speech is the speech of Allah that is the Book of Allah. The best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. Of all matters, the worst are innovations; and everything new is an innovation, and every innovation is a deviation, and every deviation leads to Hell-fire."

A Muslim must not be deceived by seeing a large number of people imitating non-Muslims and celebrating innovated festivals throughout the world because the truth is known and recognized by the evidences of Islamic sharee'ah and not by the acts of a great number of people. Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "And if you obey most of those on earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah's Path. They follow nothing but conjectures, and they do nothing but lie." (Al-Qur‘aan 6:116)

Finally, the Muslims must remember that the end of the month of Ramadan or Dhul-Hijjah does not signify the end of all the striving towards goodness that they did in these months gone by. Rather, they have to be grateful to Allah for having blessed them with these rituals, so they should glorify Him and realize that this gratitude necessitates that they work even harder to please Allah in the months to come. Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "…(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah [i.e. to say takbeer (Allaahu akbar: Allah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him." (Al-Qur‘aan 2:185)

Allah, the Exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): "So glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him). And worship your Lord until there comes unto you the certainty (i.e. death)." (Al-Qur‘aan 15:98-99)

May Allah (SWT) help us and all the Muslims to understand His religion, to continually confirm us on it, stick to Sunnah and keep away from the innovations. And may Allah shower His blessings and mercy upon our Prophet Muhammad (SAAS), his family and his companions (RAA). Indeed He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.


Published on Wednesday the 2nd of Dhul-Hijjah, 1425/the 12th of January, 2005



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