In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Al-Mu'tazilah

 The article was collected by Ummu Mariam.

 

 

 

Verily, all praises and thanks are due to Allah, we praise Him, seek His help and His forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils of our souls and evils of our deeds. One whom Allah guides none can lead him astray, and one whom He misguides, none can guide him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad (SAAS) is His servant and His messenger.

"O you who believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He has ordered and by abstaining from all that He has forbidden) as He should be feared. (Obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Him always), and die not except in a state of Islam [as Muslims (with complete submission to Allah)]." (Al-Qur‘aan 3:102 - interpretation of the meaning)

"O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you." (Al-Qur‘aan 4:1 - interpretation of the meaning)

"O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (SAAS) he has indeed achieved a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-fire and made to enter Paradise)." (Al-Qur‘aan 33:70-71 - interpretation of the meaning)

Ammaa ba'd (as for what follows), the best of speech is the speech of Allah that is the Book of Allah. The best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (SAAS). Of all matters, the worst are innovations; and everything new is an innovation, and every innovation is a deviation, and every deviation leads to Hell-fire.

 

 

Al-Mu'tazilah are from the Rationalist school of thought and have very many deviations in their methodological principles. Al-Mu'tazilah means "those who separated". It originated in 8th century in Basra when Waasel ibn 'Ataa‘ al-Ghazzaal (700-748) left the teaching lessons of the distinguished scholar al-Hasan al-Basri (642-728) after a theological dispute on the question relating to the definition applicable to the Muslim who commits a major sin, and hence he and his followers were termed al-Mu'tazilah. Later, al-Mu'tazilah called themselves Ahl-ul-'Adl wat-Tauhiid (People of Justice and Monotheism) based on the theology they advocated.

Al-Mu'tazilah adopted the position that a Muslim who commits a major sin without repenting occupies a middle state between being a Muslim and not being a Muslim. Al-Mu'tazilah theology developed on logic and rationalism from Greek philosophy, and sought to combine Islamic doctrines with the former, and show that they are inherently compatible. At the time of the rise of the 'Abbasids in 750 al-Mu'tazilah began to become prominent in the Islamic world. In the 9th century the 'Abbasid caliph, al-Ma‘muun, raised al-Mu'tazilah doctrine to the status of the state creed. Openly supported by the caliphate, al-Mu'tazilah became increasingly intolerant and began to persecute their opponents. On one occasion the eminent Sunni scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855), was subjected to flogging and imprisonment for his refusal to subscribe to al-Mu'tazilah doctrine that al-Qur‘aan was created in time.

Al-Mu'tazilah tenets focus on the five principles:

  1. Tauhiid - Monotheism. They deny the attributes of Allah and thus, consider passages in al-Qur‘aan that describe the Essence of Allah to be regarded as metaphorical rather than literal. From this follows that they believe that Allah cannot be seen - in the literal sense of the term - in the Hereafter. Al-Mu'tazilah also argued that al-Qur‘aan could not be eternal, but created by Allah.

  2. Al-'adl - Divine Justice. Allah does no evil and He wills and does only that which is good. They also deny Divine Predestination and consider that men have control over their voluntary acts, in other words, they are themselves the producers of them. Therefore, people are entirely responsible for their decisions and actions.

  3. Al-wa'd wal-wa'iid - Promise and Threat. Allah would reward those who obeyed Him with what He promised, and punish those who disobeyed with threats of hellfire. On account of the 'threat' uttered against believer in al-Qur‘aan, every Muslim who committed a major sin and dies without repentance, will suffer for eternity the torments of Hell, but having less punishment than the disbelievers.

  4. Al-manzilah bayn al-manzilatayn - the position between the two extremes. Sinful Muslim cannot here on earth be classed either as 'believing' (mu‘min) or as 'disbelieving' (kaafir), but belongs to a separate category, that of the 'malefactor' (faasiq), and in the Hereafter he will be eternal in Hell, if they did not repent in this life.

  5. Al-amr bil-ma'roof wan-nahy 'anil-munkar - commanding the good and prohibiting the evil. To intervene in public affairs to uphold the Law and oppose impiety. This includes permitting rebellion against unjust rulers as a way to prohibit evil.

And Allah knows best.


Published on Friday the 1st of Muharram, 1428/the 19th of January, 2007



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